Microstructure of zirconium carbide ceramics synthesized by spark plasma sintering

Authors

  • B.A.B. Alawad Sudan University of Science and Technology
  • H.A.A. Abdelbagi University of Pretoria
  • Tshepo Ntsoane Radiation Science Division, South Africa Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa)
  • Thulani Hlatshwayo University of Pretoria

Keywords:

Zirconium carbide, Ceramic pellets, Zirconium carbide powder, Spark plasma sintering, sintering temperature

Abstract

Zirconium carbide (ZrC) samples were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS), at temperatures of 1700 °C, 1900 °C and 2100 °C, all at pressure of 50 megapascal (MPa). The density of ZrC ceramic pellets was measured using a Micromeritics AccuPyc II 1340 Helium Pycnometer. The density of ZrC ceramic pellets was found to increase from (6.51 ± 0.032) g/cm3 to (6.66 ± 0.039) g/cm3 and (6.70 ± 0.017) g/cm3 when the temperature of the SPS was increased from 1700 oC to 1900 oC and 2100 oC respectively. Moreover, the hardness of ZrC ceramic pellets were measured using Rockwell hardness test. The hardness of ZrC ceramic pellets increased from (7.4 ± 0.83) to (17.0 ± 0.073) and (18.4± 0.05) gigapascals (GPa) at temperatures of 1700 oC, 1900 oC and 2100 oC respectively. X-ray diffraction shows the absence of spurious phases or impurity. XRD results showed that, all prepared ZrC samples has the same preferred orientation of the planes (i.e., 200). Furthermore, the average grain size of ZrC was calculated using Sherrers’s equation. The average grain size of the pure ZrC powder increased from 67.46 nm to 72 nm, 79 nm and 83 nm when the ZrC powder was sinteried at temperatures of 1700 oC, 1900 oC and 2100 oC respectively. The differences in the average grain size between the prepared samples leads to show different surface morphologies that monitored by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Author Biographies

B.A.B. Alawad, Sudan University of Science and Technology

Dr. Bilal Abass Bilal Alawad, working as assistance professor at Physics department, Sudan university of science and technology. He got his PhD un Physics (Nuclear materials science) from the university of Pretoria, South Africa in 2020. 

H.A.A. Abdelbagi, University of Pretoria

Dr. Hesham A.A. Abdelbagi, is working as a postdoctoral fellow at Physics department, University of Pretoria. He got his PhD in Physics (Nuclear materials science) from the university of Pretoria in 2020. 

Tshepo Ntsoane, Radiation Science Division, South Africa Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa)

Dr. Tshepo Ntsoane, is working as an assistance professor at Radiation Science Division, South Africa Nuclear Energy Corporation (Necsa). He got his PhD in Physics (radiation physics) from the university of Pretoria in 2019. 

Thulani Hlatshwayo, University of Pretoria

Prof. Thulani Hlatshwayo, is working as a professor at Physics department, University of Pretoria. He got his PhD in Physics (Nuclear materials science) from the university of Pretoria since 2010. 

References

H.O. Pierson, Handbook of Refractory Carbides and Nitrides: Properties, Characteristics, and Applications (Westwood, NJ, (1996).

K. Upadhya, J.-M. Yang, W.P. Hoffman, Materials for ultrahigh temperature structural applications, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull. 76 (1997) 51–56.

R. Savino, M.D.S. Fumo, L. Silvestroni, D. Sciti, Arc-jet testing on HfB 2 and HfC-based ultra-high temperature ceramic materials, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28 (2008) 1899–1907.

H.J. Ryu, Y.W. Lee, S. Il Cha, S.H. Hong, Sintering behaviour and microstructures of carbides and nitrides for the inert matrix fuel by spark plasma sintering, J. Nucl. Mater. 352 (2006) 341–348.

E. Min-Haga, W.D. Scott, Sintering and mechanical properties of ZrC-ZrO 2 composites, J. Mater. Sci. 23 (1988) 2865–2870.

O.O. Ozturk, G. Goller, Spark plasma sintering and characterization of ZrC-TiB 2 composites, Ceram. Int. 43 (2017) 8475–8481.

S.-K. Sun, G.-J. Zhang, W.-W. Wu, J.-X. Liu, T. Suzuki, Y. Sakka, Reactive spark plasma sintering of ZrC and HfC ceramics with fine microstructures, Scr. Mater. 69 (2013) 139–142.

X. Wei, C. Back, O. Izhvanov, C.D. Haines, E.A. Olevsky, Zirconium carbide produced by spark plasma sintering and hot pressing: Densification kinetics, grain growth, and thermal properties, Materials (Basel). 9 (2016) 577.

T. Suzuki, H. Matsumoto, N. Nomura, S. Hanada, Microstructures and fracture toughness of directionally solidified Mo--ZrC eutectic composites, Sci. Technol. Adv. Mater. 3 (2002) 137–143.

J.Y. Ko, S.-Y. Park, D.Y. Yoon, S.-J.L. Kang, Migration of Intergranular Liquid Films and Formation of Core-Shell Grains in Sintered TiC--Ni Bonded to WC--Ni, J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 87 (2004) 2262–2267.

W.G. Fahrenholtz, E.J. Wuchina, W.E. Lee, Y. Zhou, Ultra-high temperature ceramics: materials for extreme environment applications, John Wiley & Sons, 2014.

Z.A. Munir, U. Anselmi-Tamburini, M. Ohyanagi, The effect of electric field and pressure on the synthesis and consolidation of materials: a review of the spark plasma sintering method, J. Mater. Sci. 41 (2006) 763–777.

D.S. Perera, M. Tokita, S. Moricca, Comparative study of fabrication of Si 3 N 4/SiC composites by spark plasma sintering and hot isostatic pressing, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 18 (1998) 401–404.

L. Kljajevi?, S. Nenadovi?, M. Nenadovi?, D. Gautam, T. Volkov-Husovi?, A. Deve?erski, B. Matovi?, Spark plasma sintering of ZrC--SiC ceramics with LiYO 2 additive, Ceram. Int. 39 (2013) 5467–5476.

A. Zavaliangos, J. Zhang, M. Krammer, and J. R. Groza, “Temperature evolution during field activated sintering,” Mater. Sciennce Eng. A, vol. 379, pp. 218–228, 2004.

G.D. Zhan, A.K. Mukherjee, Carbon Nanotube Reinforced Alumina-Based Ceramics with Novel Mechanical, Electrical, and Thermal Properties, Appl. Ceram. Technol. 71 (2004) 161–171.

R. Delhez, T.H. De Keijser, E.J. Mittemeijer, Determination of crystallite size and lattice distortions through X-ray diffraction line profile analysis, Fresenius’ Zeitschrift F{ü}r Anal. Chemie. 312 (1982) 1–16.

T.B.M. C.S. Barrett, Structure of Metals, Pergamon Press. Oxford, UK. (1980).

D. Sciti, S. Guicciardi, M. Nygren, Spark plasma sintering and mechanical behaviour of ZrC-based composites, Scr. Mater. 59 (2008) 638–641.

S. K. Sun, G. J. Zhang, W. W. Wu, J. X. Liu, T. Suzuki, and Y. Sakka, “Reactive spark plasma sintering of ZrC and HfC ceramics with fine microstructures,” Scr. Mater., vol. 69 (2013) 139–142.

W. K. Burton, N. Cabrera and F. C. Frank, The growth of crystals and the equilibrium structure of their surfaces, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. A 243 (1951) 299- 358.

J. P. Hirth and G. M. Pound, Coefficients of evaporation and condensation, J. Phys. Chem. 64 (1960) 619–626.

D. Sciti, M. Nygren, Spark plasma sintering of ultra refractory compounds, J. Mater. Sci. 43 (2008) 6414–6421.

C.V. Thompson, Structure evolution during processing of polycrystalline films, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 30 (2000) 159–190.

X. Wei, C. Back, O. Izhvanov, O.L. Khasanov, C.D. Haines, E.A. Olevsky, Spark plasma sintering of commercial zirconium carbide powders: Densification behavior and mechanical properties, Materials (Basel). 8 (2015) 6043–6061.

Downloads

Published

2022-05-23

How to Cite

Alawad, B. A. B. ., Abdelbagi, H. A. A., Ntsoane, T., & Hlatshwayo, T. (2022). Microstructure of zirconium carbide ceramics synthesized by spark plasma sintering. OAJ Materials and Devices, 6(1). Retrieved from http://caip.co-ac.com/index.php/materialsanddevices/article/view/146